The first volcanic eruption known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century started on Jebel at Tair Island in September 2007. The early phase of the eruption was energetic, with lava reaching the shore of the small island within hours, destroying a Yemeni military outpost and causing a few casualties. The eruption lasted several months, producing a new summit cone and lava covering an area of 5.9 km2, which is about half the area of the island. The Jebel at Tair activity was followed by two more eruptions within the Zubair archipelago, about 50 km to the southeast, in 2011–2012 and 2013, both of which started on the seafloor and resulted in the formation of new islands. The first of these eruptions started in December 2011 in the northern part of the archipelago and lasted for about one month, generating a small (0.25 km2) oval-shaped island. Coastal erosion during the first two years following the end of the eruption has reduced the size of the island to 0.19 km2. The second event occurred in the central part of the Zubair Islands and lasted roughly two months (September–November, 2013), forming a larger (0.68 km2) island. The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea are a part of increased activity seen in the entire southern Red Sea region following the onset of a rifting episode in Afar (Ethiopia) in 2005.