Uncertainty Quantification and Optimization of Deep Learning for Fracture Recognition

Ryan Santoso, Xupeng He, Marwa Alsinan, Hyung Kwak, Hussein Hoteit

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Automatic fracture recognition from borehole images or outcrops is applicable for the construction of fractured reservoir models. Deep learning for fracture recognition is subject to uncertainty due to sparse and imbalanced training set, and random initialization. We present a new workflow to optimize a deep learning model under uncertainty using U-Net. We consider both epistemic and aleatoric uncertainty of the model. We propose a U-Net architecture by inserting dropout layer after every "weighting" layer. We vary the dropout probability to investigate its impact on the uncertainty response. We build the training set and assign uniform distribution for each training parameter, such as the number of epochs, batch size, and learning rate. We then perform uncertainty quantification by running the model multiple times for each realization, where we capture the aleatoric response. In this approach, which is based on Monte Carlo Dropout, the variance map and F1-scores are utilized to evaluate the need to craft additional augmentations or stop the process. This work demonstrates the existence of uncertainty within the deep learning caused by sparse and imbalanced training sets. This issue leads to unstable predictions. The overall responses are accommodated in the form of aleatoric uncertainty. Our workflow utilizes the uncertainty response (variance map) as a measure to craft additional augmentations in the training set. High variance in certain features denotes the need to add new augmented images containing the features, either through affine transformation (rotation, translation, and scaling) or utilizing similar images. The augmentation improves the accuracy of the prediction, reduces the variance prediction, and stabilizes the output. Architecture, number of epochs, batch size, and learning rate are optimized under a fixed-uncertain training set. We perform the optimization by searching the global maximum of accuracy after running multiple realizations. Besides the quality of the training set, the learning rate is the heavy-hitter in the optimization process. The selected learning rate controls the diffusion of information in the model. Under the imbalanced condition, fast learning rates cause the model to miss the main features. The other challenge in fracture recognition on a real outcrop is to optimally pick the parental images to generate the initial training set. We suggest picking images from multiple sides of the outcrop, which shows significant variations of the features. This technique is needed to avoid long iteration within the workflow. We introduce a new approach to address the uncertainties associated with the training process and with the physical problem. The proposed approach is general in concept and can be applied to various deep-learning problems in geoscience.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDay 3 Tue, November 30, 2021
PublisherSPE
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2021

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