Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials with a non-centrosymmetric structure exhibit great potential for nano-scale electromechanical systems and electronic devices. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric 2D materials draw growing interest for applications in energy harvesting, electronics, and optoelectronics. This article first reviews the preparation of these functional 2D layered materials, including exfoliation methods and vapor phase deposition growth, followed by a general introduction to various piezo/ferro-electric characterization methods. Typical 2D piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials and their electronic properties, together with their potential applications, are also introduced. Finally, future research directions for 2D piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are discussed.