Thermally activated injection limited conduction in single layer N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)1-1′-biphenyl-4,4′ -diamine light emitting diodes

A. J. Campbell, D. D.C. Bradley, J. Laubender, M. Sokolowski

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66 Scopus citations

Abstract

Impedance, current-voltage-luminosity and spectral measurements have been carried out on indium-tin-oxide/N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)1-1′- biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (TPD)/A1 light emitting diodes. The devices have a blue/violet emission with a spectrum peaked at 404 nm. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that at zero bias the devices are fully depleted. The impedance measurements show that the devices can be modeled on a single, frequency-independent parallel resistor-capacitor RPCP circuit with a small series resistance RS. RP changes with applied bias and temperature, while CP remains constant. The values of CP give εr = 3.0±0.3. Analysis of the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics show that the dominant conduction mechanism cannot be either ohmic, trap free space charge limited, or tunneling injection. The temperature and thickness dependence indicate that it must be either thermionic emission or thermally assisted tunneling, the carrier density varying from about 1010/1011 to 3 × 1013cm-3 over the measured bias range. The EL efficiency increases 20 fold upon cooling but shows little variation with bias at all temperatures, indicating the same mechanism is responsible for the injection of both holes and electrons. Modeling the results with thermionic emission suggests that image force lowering is responsible for the variation of the current with applied bias, but the calculated injection barrier height and Richardson constant are much smaller than expected. This cannot be explained by models based on a backflowing surface recombination current due to the high carrier mobility found in TPD. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume86
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 1999
Externally publishedYes

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