The thermal decomposition of yttrium 2-methylbutyrate (Y(C4H9CO2)3) under argon gas flow has been investigated by means of simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, FTIR-spectroscopy (solid residue and evolved gas analysis), mass spectrometry, hot-stage optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction with a standard laboratory Cu-tube source as well as with a high-energy synchrotron radiation source. At least one structural transition occurs in the solid state between 100 °C and 160 °C. The decomposition of the Y 2-methylbutyrate salt takes place above 400 °C. A first stage results in the formation of Y2O2CO3 between 400 °C and 490 °C. This decomposition step is accompanied by the release of CO2, a symmetrical ketone (3,5-dimethyl-4-heptanone), as well as probably a terminal alkyne, which could not be unambiguously identified. At higher temperature, Y2O2CO3 is slowly converted to Y2O3 with release of CO2, while some carbonaceous residue is eliminated via combustion. The TG trace reaches the final plateau at about 1200 °C.