Two-dimensional (2D) materials could potentially be used to develop advanced monolithic integrated circuits. However, despite impressive demonstrations of single devices and simple circuits—in some cases with performance superior to those of silicon-based circuits—reports on the fabrication of integrated circuits using 2D materials are limited and the creation of large-scale circuits remains in its infancy. Here we examine the development of integrated circuits based on 2D layered materials. We assess the most advanced circuits fabricated so far and explore the key challenges that need to be addressed to deliver highly scaled circuits. We also propose a roadmap for the future development of integrated circuits based on 2D layered materials.