Use of preformed metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) as supermolecular building blocks (SBBs) for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) remains underexplored due to lack of robust functionalized MOPs. Herein we report the use of polycarboxylate cuboctahedral Rh(II)-MOPs for constructing highly-connected MOFs. Cuboctahedral MOPs were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups on their 12 vertices or 24 edges through coordinative or covalent post-synthetic routes, respectively. We then used each isolated polycarboxylate Rh(II)-MOP as 12-c cuboctahedral or 24-c rhombicuboctahedral SBBs that, upon linkage with metallic secondary building units (SBUs), afford bimetallic highly-connected MOFs. The assembly of a pre-synthesized 12-c SBB with a 4-c paddle-wheel SBU, and a 24-c SBB with a 3-c triangular Cu(II) SBU gave rise to bimetallic MOFs having ftw (4,12-c) or rht (3,24-c) topologies, respectively.