Sponges are found in virtually all marine habitats. The Red Sea is no exception, harboring a diverse community of sponge species. However, the state of knowledge of the Red Sea sponge fauna remains in early stages. Various taxonomic efforts have been initiated, starting with early explorers at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Subsequently, published work has focused on modern taxonomic approaches, potential bioactive molecules, microbiological associations of host sponges, and a variety of ecological topics. The majority of studies are restricted to few locations and/or small numbers of species. Overall, this collective knowledge represents a sound foundation but there remains great potential for Red Sea sponges to inform the broader context of sponge work throughout the tropics. This chapter aims to provide an overview of previous work in the region and identify fruitful areas of potential future work.