Soot zone structures of counterflow and co-flow diffusion flames have been studied experimentally using the soot extinction-scattering, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorescence, and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements. The counterflow flame has been numerically modelled with detailed chemistry. Results show that two different categories of sooting flame structures can be classified depending on the relative transport of soot particles to flames. These are the soot formation-oxidation flame and the soot formation flame. The soot formation oxidation flame characteristics are observed in counterflow flames when located on the fuel side and in normal co-flow flames. In this case, soot particles are transported toward the high temperature region or the flame and experience soot inception, coagulation growth, and oxidation. The soot formation flame characteristics are observed in counterflow flames when located on the oxidizer side and in inverse co-flow flames. In this case, soot particles are transported away from the flame without experiencing oxidation and finally leak through the stagnation plane in counterflow flames or leave the flame in inverse co-flow flames. Sooting limit measurements in both flames also substantiate the two different sooting flame structures and their characteristics.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Physics and Astronomy(all)