The generation of energy by clean, efficient and environmental-friendly means is now one of the major challenges for engineers and scientists. Fuel cells convert chemical energy of a fuel gas directly into electrical work, and are efficient and environmentally clean, since no combustion is required. Moreover, fuel cells have the potential for development to a sufficient size for applications for commercial electricity generation. This paper outlines the acute global population growth and the growing need and use of energy and its consequent environmental impacts. The existing or emerging fuel cells' technologies are comprehensively discussed in this paper. In particular, attention is given to the design and operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), noting the restrictions based on materials' requirements and fuel specifications. Moreover, advantages of SOFCs with respect to the other fuel cell technologies are identified. This paper also reviews the limitations and the benefits of SOFCs in relationship with energy, environment and sustainable development. Few potential applications, as long-term potential actions for sustainable development, and the future of such devices are discussed.
- Solid Electrolytes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment