Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been playing the leading role in energy storage modules of electric vehicles and hand-held electronics. The application of LIBs in future large-scale renewable energy storage may be hindered due to the cost and limited lithium resources in the earth crust. Sodium-ion battery (SIB) is considered to be an alternative for lithium-ion battery in large-scale renewable energy storage applications due to abundant sodium resources and similar electrochemical mechanisms. Compared with cathodes, the anodes of SIB show unstable performance and limited capacity, which has hindered the development and commercialization of SIBs. In this review, we discuss recent developments in anodes of SIB, including material synthesis, electrochemical performance, and sodium storage mechanisms. Additionally, we analyze the critical issues, challenges, and future trends in SIB research, development, and commercialization.