We describe how vertical seismic profile (VSP) interferometric imaging of transmitted P-to-S (PS) waves can be used to delineate the flanks of salt bodies. Unlike traditional migration methods, interferometric PS imaging does not require the migration velocity model of the salt and/or upper sediments in order to image the salt flank. Synthetic elastic examples show that PS interferometric imaging can clearly delineate the upper and lower boundaries of a realistic salt-body model. Results also show that PS interferometric imaging is noticeably more accurate than conventional migration methods in the presence of static shifts and/or migration velocity errors. However, the illumination area of the PS transmitted waves is limited by the width of the shot and geophone aperture, which means wide shot offsets and deeper receiver wells are needed for comprehensive salt-flank imaging. Interferometric imaging results for VSP data from the Gulf of Mexico demonstrate its superiority over the traditional migration method. We also discuss other arrivals that can be used for interferometric imaging of salt flanks. For comparison, reduced-time migration results are presented, which are similar in quality to those obtained for interferometric imaging. We conclude that PS interferometric imaging of VSP data provides the geophysicist with a new tool by which salt flanks can be viewed from both above and below VSP geophone locations.
- Geophysical signal processing
- Seismic waves
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology