Multispectral thermal-infrared images from the Mauna Loa caldera in Hawaii, USA are examined to study the effects of surface roughness on remotely retrieved emissivities. We find up to a 3% decrease in spectral contrast in ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) 90-m/pixel emissivities due to sub-pixel surface roughness variations on the caldera floor. A similar decrease in spectral contrast of emissivities extracted from MASTER (MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator) ~12.5-m/pixel data can be described as a function of increasing surface roughness, which was measured remotely from ASTER 15-m/pixel stereo images. The ratio between ASTER stereo images provides a measure of sub-pixel surface-roughness variations across the scene. These independent roughness estimates complement a radiosity model designed to quantify the unresolved effects of multiple scattering and differential solar heating due to sub-pixel roughness elements and to compensate for both sub-pixel temperature dispersion and cavity radiation on TIR measurements.