Vibration energy harvesting and sensing is a traditional and growing research field in which various working mechanisms and designs have been developed for an improved performance. Relying on a coupling effect of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, in the past 5 years, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been applied as a fundamentally new technology to revive the field of vibration energy harvesting and self-powered sensing, especially for low-frequency vibrations such as human motion, automobile, machine, and bridge vibrations. The demonstrated instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of ∼70% and a total efficiency up to 85% distinguished TENG from traditional techniques. In this article, both TENG-enabled vibration energy harvesting and self-powered active sensing are comprehensively reviewed. Moving toward future development, problems pressing for solutions and onward research directions are also posed to deliver a coherent picture.