Using electron paramagnetic resonance, it is shown that the reduction of the switchable polarization in BaTiO3 crystals by repeated polarization reversals (fatigue) is accompanied by the trapping of electronic charge at isolated acceptor impurities and atomic scale distortions in the perovskite oxygen octahedron. The distortions are proposed to entail nearby oxygen vacancies. Our results suggest that the suppressed polarization state arises by trapping electronic charge carriers at domain walls; the trapped electronic charge can become thermally stabilized by fatigue-induced distortions in the oxygen octahedron. The octahedron distortions are shown to be unique to fatigue-induced degradation; they are not observed in BaTiO3 capacitors that have an optically-induced suppressed polarization state.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Ceramics and Composites
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Materials Chemistry