A study was conducted to demonstrate quantitative determination of organic semiconductor microstructure from the molecular to device scale. The quantitative determination of organic semiconductor microstructure from the molecular to device scale was key to obtaining precise description of the molecular structure and microstructure of the materials of interest. This information combined with electrical characterization and modeling allowed for the establishment of general design rules to guide future rational design of materials and devices. Investigations revealed that a number and variety of defects were the largest contributors to the existence of disorder within a lattice, as organic semiconductor crystals were dominated by weak van der Waals bonding. Crystallite size, texture, and variations in structure due to spatial confinement and interfaces were also found to be relevant for transport of free charge carriers and bound excitonic species over distances that were important for device operation.