Energy-saving photodetectors are the key components in future photonic systems. Particularly, self-powered photoelectrochemical-type photodetectors (PEC–PDs), which depart completely from the classical solid-state junction device, have lately intrigued intensive interest to meet next-generation power-independent and environment-sensitive photodetection. Herein, we construct, for the first time, solar-blind PEC PDs based on self-assembled AlGaN nanostructures on silicon. Importantly, with the proper surface platinum (Pt) decoration, a significant boost of photon responsivity by more than an order of magnitude was achieved in the newly built Pt/AlGaN nanoarchitectures, demonstrating strikingly high responsivity of 45 mA/W and record fast response/recovery time of 47/20 ms without external power source. Such high solar-blind photodetection originates from the unparalleled material quality, fast interfacial kinetics, as well as high carrier separation efficiency which suggests that embracement of defect-free wide-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures with appropriate surface decoration offers an unprecedented opportunity for designing future energy-efficient and large-scale optoelectronic systems on a silicon platform.