The nematicidal activity of selected aromatic aldehydes was tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The most active aldehyde was phthalaldehyde (1) with an EC50 value of 11 ± 6 mg/L followed by salicylaldehyde (2) and cinnamic aldehyde (3) with EC50 values of 11 ± 1 and 12 ± 5 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, structurally related aldehydes such as 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin (23) were not active at the concentration of 1000 mg/L. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry the reactivity of tested aldehydes against a synthetic peptide resembling the nematode cuticle was characterized. At the test concentration of 1 mM, the main adduct formation was observed for 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (22), 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. Considering that 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde were not active against M. incognita in in vitro experiments led us to hypothesize a different mechanism of action rather than an effect on the external cuticle modification of nematodes. When the toxicity of the V-ATPase inhibitor pyocyanin (10) was tested against M. incognita J2 nematodes, an EC50 at 24 h of 72 ± 25 mg/L was found. The redox-active compounds such as phthalaldehyde (1) and salicylaldehyde (2) may share a common mode of action inhibiting nematode V-ATPase enzyme. The results of this investigation reveal that aromatic redox-active aldehydes can be considered as potent nematicides, and further investigation is needed to completely clarify their mode of action.
- advanced glycation end products
- aromatic aldehydes
- botanical pesticide
- reactive oxygen species
- redox-active aldehydes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)