In plant-microbe interactions, a pathogenic microbe initially has to overcome preformed and subsequently induced plant defenses. One of the initial host-induced defense responses is microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI). Successful pathogens attenuate MTI by delivering various effectors that result in effector-triggered susceptibility and disease. However, some host plants developed mechanisms to detect effectors and can trigger effector-triggered immunity (ETI), thereby abrogating pathogen infection and propagation. Despite the wide acceptance of the above concepts, more and more accumulating evidence suggests that the distinction between MAMPs and effectors and MTI and ETI is often not given. This review discusses the complexity of MTI and ETI signaling networks and elaborates the current state of the art of defining MAMPs versus effectors and MTI versus ETI, but also discusses new findings that challenge the current dichotomy of these concepts.