Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.