A simplified 2D axisymmetric model and a comprehensive 3D weld pool model, accounting for the free surface deformation and the filler metal addition, have been developed to investigate the factors that lead to asymmetric bead shapes in horizontal GTA welding of stainless steels. Buoyancy-induced flow and the sagging of the pool free surface, under the action of gravity, are found to be responsible for the weld asymmetry and the decrease in the weld penetration at the bottom sidewall. The numerical results clearly emphasized the beneficial role of the Marangoni shear stress in limiting the asymmetry of horizontal GTA welds. An additional experimental investigation showed that the asymmetry in the weld shape can be reduced when placing the lowest sulfur content component at the bottom side. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Metals and Alloys
- Modeling and Simulation
- Ceramics and Composites
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
- Computer Science Applications