Membrane processes are currently essential for seawater desalination and their implementation in sustainable separations in the chemical industry is rapidly growing. The sustainability of the membrane manufacture itself has been however frequently questioned and needs to be improved. Ionic liquids are promising alternative solvent for membrane manufacture. We discuss general aspects of toxicity and recyclability compared to common organic solvents and take advantage of their unique capability of dissolution of polymers like cellulose, a natural and biodegradable polymer. Cellulose membranes were prepared from solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate as flat-sheet and hollow fibers. The membranes performances were evaluated for oil and water separation, analyzing the influence of anionic, cationic and neutral surfactants added to emulsions with different oil content.