We study the nonlinear refraction of X-rays in highly ionized condensed matter by using a classical model of a cold electron plasma in a lattice of still ions coupled with Maxwell equations. We discuss the existence and stability of nonlinear waves. As a real-world example, we consider beam self-defocusing in crystalline materials (B, C, Li, Na). We predict that nonlinear processes become comparable to the linear ones for focused beams with powers of the order of mc3/r0 (≈10 GW), the classical electron power. As a consequence, nonlinear phenomena are expected in currently exploited X-ray Free-Electron Lasers and in their future developments.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics