Due to their structural and functional tunability and rich applications, the area of nanostructured materials has become one of the fastest growing fields in not only chemistry but also materials science. This has been demonstrated through the ever-escalating number of publications, and citations emerging, as well as by the constant expansion of research scope and researcher engagements. In particular, catalysis research has been in an era of renaissance with nanostructured materials to reach new heights. To a large extent this is on the basis of advances of structure analysis methodologies, and a huge number publications dealing with the catalytic applications of nanostructured materials in a variety of directions have appeared in the last few years, which urge us to assemble a compendium of the latest works of nanostructured materials toward catalytic applications. This special issue in Small Methods offers highlights on the new developments of nanostructured materials for catalytic applications in a broad range.