Nanoscale Surface Photovoltage Mapping of 2D Materials and Heterostructures by Illuminated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

Melinda J. Shearer, Ming-yang Li, Lain-Jong Li, Song Jin, Robert J Hamers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nanomaterials are interesting for a variety of applications, such as optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, they often have spatial heterogeneity, i.e. composition change or physical change in the topography or structure, which can lead to varying properties that would influence their applications. New techniques must be developed to understand and correlate spatial heterogeneity with changes in electronic properties. Here we highlight the technique of surface photovoltage-Kelvin probe force microscopy (SPV-KFM), which is a modified version of non-contact atomic force microscopy capable of imaging not only the topography and surface potential, but also the surface photovoltage on the nanoscale. We demonstrate its utility in probing monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructures, which form an ultrathin p-n junction promising for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. We show surface photovoltage maps highlighting the different photoresponse of the two material regions as a result of the effective charge separation across this junction. Additionally, we study the variations between different heterostructure flakes and emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis and transfer of these materials to obtain consistent properties and measurements.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13564-13571
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume122
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 31 2018

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