Nanoparticles (NPnanoparticle (NP)s) are extremely small particulates with an average size that ranges from a micron or less to a few nanometers. The large majority of NPs necessitate nanotechnology methods for their production. The size of NPs may vary over a significant range, which underlies their scientific potential in that NPs may help cross the bridge between bulk materials and molecular structures. More importantly, NPs are (nano)tech products and thus, in contrast to natural systems, they can be designed and engineered. On directly interacting with cells, including the structures of cells, their machinery and their waste products, NPs represent an unprecedented tool for addressing specific biological problems. In this chapter, we will briefly review some recent advances in nanoparticle research for biomedical applications, ranging from mesoporous silicon particles to gold and silver nanoparticles and polymeric nanocarriers for therapeutic, diagnosis, or theranostic (therapeutics + diagnosis) applications. We will offer a description of how, at the current state of the art, similar nanomedicine platforms are realized.