More than 95% (in volume) of all of today’s chemical products are manufactured through catalytic processes, making research into more efficient catalytic materials a thrilling and very dynamic research field. In this regard, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offer great opportunities for the rational design of new catalytic solids, as highlighted by the unprecedented number of publications appearing over the past decade. In this review, the recent advances in the application of MOFs in heterogeneous catalysis are discussed. MOFs with intrinsic thermocatalytic activity, as hosts for the incorporation of metal nanoparticles, as precursors for the manufacture of composite catalysts and those active in photo- and electrocatalytic processes are critically reviewed. The review is wrapped up with our personal view on future research directions.