Over the past few years, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as a highly promising class of materials for photovoltaic technology, and the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has accelerated at an unprecedented pace, reaching a record value of over 22%. In the context of PSC research, wide-bandgap semiconducting metal oxides have been extensively studied because of their exceptional performance for injection and extraction of photo-generated carriers. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment with halide perovskites, in the form of nanostructured layers and compact thin films, can not only assist with charge transport but also improve the stability of PSCs under ambient conditions. Strategies for the implementation of metal oxides with tailored compositions and structures, and for the engineering of their interfaces with perovskites will be critical for the future development and commercialization of PSCs.