Two-photon/multiphoton lithography (MPL) has emerged as a versatile technique for the fabrication of complex 3D polymeric, hybrid organic/inorganic, and metallic structures. This article reviews some recent advances in the development of molecules and materials that enable two-photon and multiphoton 3D micro- and nanofabrication. Materials that exhibit high sensitivity for the generation of reactive intermediates are described, as are various materials systems that enable functional devices to be made and in some cases enable structures to be replicated. The combination of advances illustrates the opportunities for MPL to have a significant impact in the areas of photonics, microelectromechanical systems, and biomedical technologies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry