Mapping routine measles vaccination in low- and middle-income countries

Alyssa N. Sbarra, Sam Rolfe, Jason Q. Nguyen, Lucas Earl, Natalie C. Galles, Ashley Marks, Kaja M. Abbas, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Hedayat Abbastabar, Foad Abd-Allah, Ahmed Abdelalim, Mohammad Abdollahi, Kedir Hussein Abegaz, Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Abiy, Hassan Abolhassani, Lucas Guimarães Abreu, Michael R.M. Abrigo, Abdelrahman I. Abushouk, Manfred Mario Kokou Accrombessi, Maryam AdabiOladimeji M. Adebayo, Victor Adekanmbi, Olatunji O. Adetokunboh, Davoud Adham, Mohsen Afarideh, Mohammad Aghaali, Tauseef Ahmad, Raman Ahmadi, Keivan Ahmadi, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Fahad Mashhour Alanezi, Turki M. Alanzi, Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde-Rabanal, Birhan Tamene Alemnew, Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali, Muhammad Ali, Mehran Alijanzadeh, Cyrus Alinia, Reza Alipoor, Vahid Alipour, Hesam Alizade, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Ali Almasi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Khalid A. Altirkawi, Bekalu Amare, Saeed Amini, Mostafa Amini-Rarani, Fatemeh Amiri, Arianna Maever L. Amit, Dickson A. Amugsi, Robert Ancuceanu, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Mina Anjomshoa, Fereshteh Ansari, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Mustafa Geleto Ansha, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Ernoiz Antriyandarti, Davood Anvari, Jalal Arabloo, Morteza Arab-Zozani, Olatunde Aremu, Bahram Armoon, Krishna K. Aryal, Afsaneh Arzani, Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi, Samaneh Asgari, Zahra Atafar, Marcel Ausloos, Nefsu Awoke, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Martin Amogre Ayanore, Yared Asmare Aynalem, Abbas Azadmehr, Samad Azari, Ebrahim Babaee, Alaa Badawi, Ashish D. Badiye, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Atif Amin Baig, Ahad Bakhtiari, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Maciej Banach, Palash Chandra Banik, Aleksandra Barac, Zahra Baradaran-Seyed, Adhanom Gebreegziabher Baraki, Sanjay Basu, Mohsen Bayati, Yibeltal Tebekaw Bayou, Neeraj Bedi, Masoud Behzadifar, Michelle L. Bell, Dessalegn Ajema Berbada, Kidanemaryam Berhe, Suraj Bhattarai, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Ali Bijani, Minyichil Birhanu, Donal Bisanzio, Atanu Biswas, Somayeh Bohlouli, Srinivasa Rao Bolla, Shiva Borzouei, Oliver J. Brady, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Andrey Nikolaevich Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich Briko, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Zahid A. Butt, Luis Alberto Cámera, Ismael R. Campos-Nonato, Josip Car, Rosario Cárdenas, Felix Carvalho, João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia, Franz Castro, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Mohammad Chehrazi, Ken Lee Chin, Dinh Toi Chu, Aubrey J. Cook, Natalie Maria Cormier, Brandon Cunningham, Saad M.A. Dahlawi, Giovanni Damiani, Rakhi Dandona, Lalit Dandona, M. Carolina Danovaro, Emily Dansereau, Farah Daoud, Aso Mohammad Darwesh, Amira Hamed Darwish, Jai K. Das, Nicole Davis Weaver, Jan Walter De Neve, Feleke Mekonnen Demeke, Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Assefa Desalew, Aniruddha Deshpande, Desilu Mahari Desta, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Govinda Prasad Dhungana, Mostafa Dianatinasab, Daniel Diaz, Isaac Oluwafemi Dipeolu, Shirin Djalalinia, Hoa Thi Do, Fariba Dorostkar, Leila Doshmangir, Kerrie E. Doyle, Susanna J. Dunachie, Andre Rodrigues Duraes, Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan, Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo, Hisham Atan Edinur, Andem Effiong, Aziz Eftekhari, Iman El Sayed, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Teshome Bekele Elema, Hala Rashad Elhabashy, Shaimaa I. El-Jaafary, Aisha Elsharkawy, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Shymaa Enany, Babak Eshrati, Khalil Eskandari, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Saman Esmaeilnejad, Firooz Esmaeilzadeh, Alireza Esteghamati, Atkilt Esaiyas Etisso, Mohammad Farahmand, Emerito Jose A. Faraon, Mohammad Fareed, Roghiyeh Faridnia, Andrea Farioli, Farshad Farzadfar, Nazir Fattahi, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Eduarda Fernandes, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Nataliya A. Foigt, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Masoud Foroutan, Takeshi Fukumoto, Nancy Fullman, Mohamed M. Gad, Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam, Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot, Abiyu Mekonnen Gebrehiwot, Kidane Tadesse Gebremariam, Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel, Assefa Ayalew Gebreslassie, Getnet Azeze Gedefaw, Kebede Embaye Gezae, Keyghobad Ghadiri, Reza Ghaffari, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Mahsa Ghajarzadeh, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Hesam Ghiasvand, Asadollah Gholamian, Syed Amir Gilani, Paramjit Singh Gill, Alem Girmay, Nelson G.M. Gomes, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart, Ayman Grada, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Yuming Guo, Rahul Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Demelash Woldeyohannes Handiso, Asif Hanif, Hamidreza Haririan, Ahmed I. Hasaballah, Md Mehedi Hasan, Edris Hasanpoor, Amir Hasanzadeh, Soheil Hassanipour, Hadi Hassankhani, Reza Heidari-Soureshjani, Nathaniel J. Henry, Claudiu Herteliu, Fatemeh Heydarpour, Gillian I. Hollerich, Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Praveen Hoogar, Naznin Hossain, Mostafa Hosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Mowafa Househ, Guoqing Hu, Tanvir M. Huda, Ayesha Humayun, Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye, Gloria Ikilezi, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Irena M. Ilic, Milena D. Ilic, Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Usman Iqbal, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, M. Mofizul Islam, Chinwe Juliana Iwu, Chidozie C.D. Iwu, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Morteza Jafarinia, Nader Jahanmehr, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Amir Jalali, Farzad Jalilian, Javad Javidnia, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Vivekanand Jha, John S. Ji, Oommen John, Kimberly B. Johnson, Farahnaz Joukar, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Zubair Kabir, Ali Kabir, Hamed Kalani, Leila R. Kalankesh, Rohollah Kalhor, Zul Kamal, Tanuj Kanchan, Neeti Kapoor, Manoochehr Karami, Behzad Karami Matin, André Karch, Salah Eddin Karimi, Gbenga A. Kayode, Ali Kazemi Karyani, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Yousef Saleh Khader, Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Mohammad Khammarnia, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Junaid Khan, Md Nuruzzaman Khan, Khaled Khatab, Mona M. Khater, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Maryam Khayamzadeh, Mojtaba Khazaei, Salman Khazaei, Ardeshir Khosravi, Jagdish Khubchandani, Neda Kianipour, Yun Jin Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Damaris K. Kinyoki, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Tufa Kolola, Hamidreza Komaki, Soewarta Kosen, Parvaiz A. Koul, Ai Koyanagi, Moritz U.G. Kraemer, Kewal Krishan, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Manasi Kumar, Pushpendra Kumar, G. Anil Kumar, Dian Kusuma, Carlo La Vecchia, Ben Lacey, Sheetal D. Lad, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Felix Lam, Faris Hasan Lami, Van Charles Lansingh, Heidi Jane Larson, Savita Lasrado, Shaun Wen Huey Lee, Paul H. Lee, Kate E. LeGrand, Tsegaye Lolaso Lenjebo, Shanshan Li, Xiaofeng Liang, Patrick Y. Liu, Platon D. Lopukhov, Daiane Borges Machado, Phetole Walter Mahasha, Mokhtar Mahdavi Mahdavi, Mina Maheri, Narayan B. Mahotra, Venkatesh Maled, Shokofeh Maleki, Manzoor Ahmad Malik, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Borhan Mansouri, Morteza Mansourian, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Anthony Masaka, Benjamin K. Mayala, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Fereshteh Mehri, Kala M. Mehta, Peter T.N. Memiah, Walter Mendoza, Ritesh G. Menezes, Meresa Berwo Mengesha, Endalkachew Worku Mengesha, Tomislav Mestrovic, Kebadnew Mulatu Mihretie, Molly K. Miller-Petrie, Edward J. Mills, George J. Milne, Parvaneh Mirabi, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Roya Mirzaei, Maryam Mirzaei, Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Hamed Mirzaei, Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Babak Moazen, Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Efat Mohamadi, Dara K. Mohammad, Yousef Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Reza Mohammadpourhodki, Shafiu Mohammed, Ammas Siraj Mohammed, Hussen Mohammed, Farnam Mohebi, Ali H. Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Mohammad Amin Moosavi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghobad Moradi, Masoud Moradi, Mohammad Moradi-Joo, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Paula Moraga, Abbas Mosapour, Simin Mouodi, Seyyed Meysam Mousavi, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Ulrich Otto Mueller, Atalay Goshu Muluneh, Sandra B. Munro, Christopher J.L. Murray, G. V.S. Murthy, Saravanan Muthupandian, Mehdi Naderi, Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan, Mohsen Naghavi, Vinay Nangia, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Vinod C. Nayak, Javad Nazari, Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe, Ionut Negoi, Josephine W. Ngunjiri, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Chuc T.K. Nguyen, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Yeshambel T. Nigatu, Rajan Nikbakhsh, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Chukwudi A. Nnaji, In Hwan Oh, Morteza Oladnabi, Andrew T. Olagunju, Jacob Olusegun Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Ahmed Omar Bali, Muktar Omer Omer, Obinna E. Onwujekwe, Aaron E. Osgood-Zimmerman, Mayowa O. Owolabi, P. A. Mahesh, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Keyvan Pakshir, Adrian Pana, Anamika Pandey, Victoria Pando-Robles, Tahereh Pashaei, Deepak Kumar Pasupula, Angel J. Paternina-Caicedo, George C. Patton, Hamidreza Pazoki Toroudi, Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito, Julia Moreira Pescarini, David M. Pigott, Thomas Pilgrim, Meghdad Pirsaheb, Mario Poljak, Maarten J. Postma, Hadi Pourjafar, Farshad Pourmalek, Reza Pourmirza Kalhori, Sergio I. Prada, Sanjay Prakash, Zahiruddin Quazi Syed, Hedley Quintana, Navid Rabiee, Mohammad Rabiee, Amir Radfar, Alireza Rafiei, Fakher Rahim, Fatemeh Rajati, Muhammed Ahmed Rameto, Kiana Ramezanzadeh, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Sowmya J. Rao, Davide Rasella, Prateek Rastogi, Priya Rathi, Salman Rawaf, David Laith Rawaf, Lal Rawal, Reza Rawassizadeh, Ramu Rawat, Vishnu Renjith, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Bhageerathy Reshmi, Melese Abate Reta, Nima Rezaei, Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Aziz Rezapour, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Jennifer Rickard, Maria Rios-Blancas, Carlos Miguel Rios-González, Leonardo Roever, Morteza Rostamian, Salvatore Rubino, Godfrey M. Rwegerera, Anas M. Saad, Seyedmohammad Saadatagah, Siamak Sabour, Ehsan Sadeghi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Shahram Saeidi, Rajesh Sagar, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, S. Mohammad Sajadi, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Nasir Salam, Hosni Salem, Marwa Rashad Salem, Joshua A. Salomon, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Evanson Zondani Sambala, Abdallah M. Samy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy, Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez, Satish Saroshe, Benn Sartorius, Arash Sarveazad, Brijesh Sathian, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Lauren E. Schaeffer, David C. Schwebel, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Hosein Shabaninejad, Saeed Shahabi, Amira A. Shaheen, Masood Ali Shaikh, Ali S. Shalash, Mehran Shams-Beyranvand, Mohammad Bagher Shamsi, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Kiomars Sharafi, Hamid Sharifi, Aziz Sheikh, Abbas Sheikhtaheri, Ranjitha S. Shetty, Wondimeneh Shibabaw Shiferaw, Mika Shigematsu, Jae Il I. Shin, Reza Shirkoohi, Soraya Siabani, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Jonathan I.S. Silverberg, Biagio Simonetti, Jasvinder A. Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Abiy H. Sinke, Amin Soheili, Anton Sokhan, Shahin Soltani, Moslem Soofi, Muluken Bekele Sorrie, Ireneous N. Soyiri, Adel Spotin, Emma Elizabeth Spurlock, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Agus Sudaryanto, Mu’awiyyah Babale Sufiyan, Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Amir Taherkhani, Leili Tapak, Nuno Taveira, Parvaneh Taymoori, Yonatal Mesfin Tefera, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Berhane Fseha Teklehaimanot, Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu, Berhe Etsay Tesfay, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Belay Tessema, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Hamid Reza Tohidinik, Roman Topor-Madry, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Bach Xuan Tran, Riaz Uddin, Irfan Ullah, Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Era Upadhyay, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Maryam Vaezi, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz, Pascual R. Valdez, Yasser Vasseghian, Yousef Veisani, Francesco S. Violante, Sebastian Vollmer, Yasir Waheed, Jon Wakefield, Yafeng Wang, Yuan Pang Wang, Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel, Andrea Werdecker, Ronny Westerman, Taweewat Wiangkham, Kirsten E. Wiens, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Gebremariam Woldu, Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash, Tewodros Eshete Wonde, Ai Min Wu, Ali Yadollahpour, Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Tomohide Yamada, Sanni Yaya, Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Tomas Y. Yeheyis, Yigizie Yeshaw, Christopher Sabo Yilgwan, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Z. Younis, Zabihollah Yousefi, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Taraneh Yousefinezhadi, Chuanhua Yu, Hasan Yusefzadeh, Siddhesh Zadey, Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Leila Zaki, Sojib Bin B. Zaman, Mohammad Zamani, Maryam Zamanian, Hamed Zandian, Alireza Zangeneh, Fatemeh Zarei, Taddese Alemu Zerfu, Yunquan Zhang, Zhi Jiang Zhang, Xiu Ju George Zhao, Maigeng Zhou, Arash Ziapour, Simon I. Hay, Stephen S. Lim, Jonathan F. Mosser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

The safe, highly effective measles vaccine has been recommended globally since 1974, yet in 2017 there were more than 17 million cases of measles and 83,400 deaths in children under 5 years old, and more than 99% of both occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)1–4. Globally comparable, annual, local estimates of routine first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage are critical for understanding geographically precise immunity patterns, progress towards the targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), and high-risk areas amid disruptions to vaccination programmes caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)5–8. Here we generated annual estimates of routine childhood MCV1 coverage at 5 × 5-km2 pixel and second administrative levels from 2000 to 2019 in 101 LMICs, quantified geographical inequality and assessed vaccination status by geographical remoteness. After widespread MCV1 gains from 2000 to 2010, coverage regressed in more than half of the districts between 2010 and 2019, leaving many LMICs far from the GVAP goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019. MCV1 coverage was lower in rural than in urban locations, although a larger proportion of unvaccinated children overall lived in urban locations; strategies to provide essential vaccination services should address both geographical contexts. These results provide a tool for decision-makers to strengthen routine MCV1 immunization programmes and provide equitable disease protection for all children.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNature
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 16 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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