Mapping disparities in education across low- and middle-income countries

Nicholas Graetz, Lauren Woyczynski, Katherine F. Wilson, Jason B. Hall, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Foad Abd-Allah, Oladimeji M. Adebayo, Victor Adekanmbi, Mahdi Afshari, Olufemi Ajumobi, Tomi Akinyemiju, Fares Alahdab, Ziyad Al-Aly, Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde Rabanal, Mehran Alijanzadeh, Vahid Alipour, Khalid Altirkawi, Mohammadreza Amiresmaili, Nahla Hamed Anber, Catalina Liliana AndreiMina Anjomshoa, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Jalal Arabloo, Olatunde Aremu, Krishna K. Aryal, Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi, Suleman Atique, Marcel Ausloos, Ashish Awasthi, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Samad Azari, Alaa Badawi, Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub, Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo, Anthony Barnett, Neeraj Bedi, Derrick A. Bennett, Natalia V. Bhattacharjee, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Suraj Bhattarai, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Ali Bijani, Boris Bikbov, Gabrielle Britton, Roy Burstein, Zahid A. Butt, Rosario Cárdenas, Félix Carvalho, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Franz Castro, Ester Cerin, Jung Chen Chang, Michael L. Collison, Cyrus Cooper, Michael A. Cork, Farah Daoud, Rajat Das Gupta, Nicole Davis Weaver, Jan Walter De Neve, Kebede Deribe, Beruk Berhanu Desalegn, Aniruddha Deshpande, Melaku Desta, Meghnath Dhimal, Daniel Diaz, Mesfin Tadese Dinberu, Shirin Djalalinia, Manisha Dubey, Eleonora Dubljanin, Andre R. Durães, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Lucas Earl, Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan, Ziad El-Khatib, Babak Eshrati, Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Mohammad Fareed, Andre Faro, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Eduarda Fernandes, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Takeshi Fukumoto, Jose A. García, Paramjit Singh Gill, Tiffany K. Gill, Philimon N. Gona, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Ayman Grada, Yuming Guo, Rajeev Gupta, Vipin Gupta, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Randah R. Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Mehedi Hasan, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Delia Hendrie, Andualem Henok, Nathaniel J. Henry, Bernardo Hernández Prado, Claudiu Herteliu, Michael K. Hole, Naznin Hossain, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Guoqing Hu, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Neda Izadi, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Ravi Prakash Jha, John S. Ji, Jost B. Jonas, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Tanuj Kanchan, Amir Kasaeian, Ali Kazemi Karyani, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Yousef Saleh Khader, Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Mona M. Khater, Aliasghar A. Kiadaliri, Daniel N. Kiirithio, Yun Jin Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Damaris K. Kinyoki, Adnan Kisa, Soewarta Kosen, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Manasi Kumar, Pushpendra Kumar, Faris Hasan Lami, Paul H. Lee, Aubrey J. Levine, Shanshan Li, Yu Liao, Lee Ling Lim, Stefan Listl, Jaifred Christian F. Lopez, Marek Majdan, Reza Majdzadeh, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Anthony Masaka, Benjamin Ballard Massenburg, Benjamin K. Mayala, Kala M. Mehta, Walter Mendoza, George A. Mensah, Tuomo J. Meretoja, Tomislav Mestrovic, Ted R. Miller, G. K. Mini, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Babak Moazen, Dara K. Mohammad, Aso Mohammad Darwesh, Shafiu Mohammed, Farnam Mohebi, Ali H. Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Yoshan Moodley, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghobad Moradi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Paula Moraga, Lidia Morawska, Shane Douglas Morrison, Jonathan F. Mosser, Seyyed Meysam Mousavi, Christopher J.L. Murray, Ghulam Mustafa, Azin Nahvijou, Farid Najafi, Vinay Nangia, Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe, Ionut Negoi, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Josephine W. Ngunjiri, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Peter S. Nyasulu, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Andrew T. Olagunju, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun Olusanya, Obinna E. Onwujekwe, Doris D.V. Ortega-Altamirano, Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo, Simon Øverland, P. A. Mahesh, Adrian Pana, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Sanghamitra Pati, George C. Patton, Norberto Perico, David M. Pigott, Meghdad Pirsaheb, Maarten J. Postma, Akram Pourshams, Swayam Prakash, Parul Puri, Mostafa Qorbani, Amir Radfar, Fakher Rahim, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Fatemeh Rajati, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, David Laith Rawaf, Salman Rawaf, Robert C. Reiner, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Satar Rezaei, Aziz Rezapour, Carlos Rios-González, Leonardo Roever, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Ali Rostami, Enrico Rubagotti, Nafis Sadat, Ehsan Sadeghi, Yahya Safari, Rajesh Sagar, Nasir Salam, Payman Salamati, Yahya Salimi, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Abdallah M. Samy, Juan Sanabria, Milena M. Santric Milicevic, Benn Sartorius, Brijesh Sathian, Arundhati R. Sawant, Lauren E. Schaeffer, Megan F. Schipp, David C. Schwebel, Anbissa Muleta Senbeta, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Masood Ali Shaikh, Mehran Shams-Beyranvand, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Kiomars Sharafi, Rajesh Sharma, Jun She, Aziz Sheikh, Mika Shigematsu, Soraya Siabani, Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira, Jasvinder A. Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Vegard Skirbekk, Amber Sligar, Badr Hasan Sobaih, Moslem Soofi, Joan B. Soriano, Ireneous N. Soyiri, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Agus Sudaryanto, Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan, Ipsita Sutradhar, Pn Sylaja, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Mohamad Hani Temsah, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Belay Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Roman Topor-Madry, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Bach Xuan Tran, Lorainne Tudor Car, Irfan Ullah, Olalekan A. Uthman, Pascual R. Valdez, Yousef Veisani, Francesco S. Violante, Vasily Vlassov, Sebastian Vollmer, Giang Thu Vu, Yasir Waheed, Yuan Pang Wang, John C. Wilkinson, Andrea Sylvia Winkler, Charles D.A. Wolfe, Tomohide Yamada, Alex Yeshaneh, Paul Yip, Engida Yisma, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Z. Younis, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Chuanhua Yu, Sojib Bin Zaman, Jianrong Zhang, Yunquan Zhang, Sanjay Zodpey, Emmanuela Gakidou, Simon I. Hay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Educational attainment is an important social determinant of maternal, newborn, and child health1–3. As a tool for promoting gender equity, it has gained increasing traction in popular media, international aid strategies, and global agenda-setting4–6. The global health agenda is increasingly focused on evidence of precision public health, which illustrates the subnational distribution of disease and illness7,8; however, an agenda focused on future equity must integrate comparable evidence on the distribution of social determinants of health9–11. Here we expand on the available precision SDG evidence by estimating the subnational distribution of educational attainment, including the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling, across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017. Previous analyses have focused on geographical disparities in average attainment across Africa or for specific countries, but—to our knowledge—no analysis has examined the subnational proportions of individuals who completed specific levels of education across all low- and middle-income countries12–14. By geolocating subnational data for more than 184 million person-years across 528 data sources, we precisely identify inequalities across geography as well as within populations.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)235-238
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume577
Issue number7789
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 9 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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