Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) is a wireless communication technology that uses visible light to transmit data in underwater environment. Compared to radio-frequency (RF) and acoustic underwater techniques, UWOC has many advantages including large information bandwidth, unlicensed spectrum and low power requirements. This review paper provides an overview of the latest UWOC research. Additionally, we present a detailed description of transmitter and receiver technologies which are key components of UWOC systems. Moreover, studies investigating underwater optical channel models for both simple attenuation and the impact of turbulence including air bubbles and inhomogeneous salinity and temperature are also described. Future research challenges are identified and outlined.