In organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors (OMIECs), it is critical to understand the motion of ions in the electrolyte and OMIEC. Generally, the focus is on the movement of net charge during gating, and the motion of neutral anion–cation pairs is seldom considered. Uptake of mobile ion pairs by the semiconductor before electrochemical gating (passive uptake) can be advantageous as this can improve device speed, and both ions can participate in charge compensation during gating. Here, such passive ion pair uptake in high-speed solid-state devices is demonstrated using an ion gel electrolyte. This is compared to a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) electrolyte to understand how ion pair uptake affects device characteristics. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the passive uptake of ion pairs from the ion gel into the OMIEC is detected, whereas no uptake is observed with a PIL electrolyte. This is corroborated by X-ray scattering, which reveals morphological changes to the OMIEC from the uptake of ion pairs. With in situ Raman, a reorganization of both anions and cations is then observed during gating. Finally, the speed and retention of OMIEC-based neuromorphic devices are tuned by controlling the freedom of charge motion in the electrolyte.
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics