Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

Mohamed Nasr Saleh, Ying Wang, Arief Yudhanto, Adam Joesbury, Prasad Potluri, Gilles Lubineau, Constantinos Soutis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-396
Number of pages20
JournalApplied Composite Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Sep 26 2016


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