The impact of different surface roughness schemes in air-sea coupling on simulating tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Bay of Bengal is analyzed using Weather Research and Forecasting-Ocean Mixed layer (WRF-OML) modeling system. The sensitivity of three surface roughness schemes is tested by conducting three experiments for seven TCs namely Phailin (2013), Lehar (2013), Hudhud (2014), Vardah (2016), Gaja (2018), Fani (2019) and Amphan (2020). The first experiment (Opt0) is configured with surface drag and moist enthalpy from Garratt formulations, the second (Opt1) uses surface drag from Donelan and constant moist enthalpy formulations and the third experiment (Opt2) employs the modified moist enthalpy from Garratt formulations along with Donelan drag. Results of predicted track, intensities, precipitation and structure of the cyclones are highly sensitive to the surface exchange coefficients formulated through the roughness parameterization. The Opt2 followed by Opt1 experiments captured the deepening and mature phases of the storm close to the observed estimates for both pre- and post-monsoon TCs, by improving the ocean-atmosphere feedback of surface energy fluxes. Comparison of simulated moisture convergence, transport and precipitation with observations for all cyclones suggest that the Opt2 provides an improved representation of surface enthalpy fluxes playing a crucial role in the moisture transport and cloud microphysical processes. The improved simulation of TCs with Opt1 and Opt2 over Opt0 is attributed to the realistic simulation of mixed layer deepening and sea surface temperature cooling effects in the model. An interesting result found from the WRF-OML simulations with three roughness schemes is the maximum moisture transport is mainly concentrated on the right sectors while the moisture convergence and precipitation are distributed on the left sectors of the cyclones.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atmospheric Science