Homolysis of weak Ti-O bonds: Experimental and theoretical studies of titanium oxygen bonds derived from stable nitroxyl radicals

Kuo-Wei Huang, Joseph H. Han, Adam P. Cole, Charles B. Musgrave, Robert M. Waymouth*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

Titanium-oxygen bonds derived from stable nitroxyl radicals are remarkably weak and can be homolyzed at 60 °C. The strength of these bonds depends sensitively on the ancillary ligation at titanium. Direct measurements of the rate of Ti-O bond homolysis in Ti-TEMPO complexes Cp2TiCl(TEMPO) (3) and Cp2TiCl(4-MeO-TEMPO) (4) (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine- N-oxyl, 4-MeO-TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-methoxypiperidine-N-oxyl) were conducted by nitroxyl radical exchange experiments. Eyring plots gave the activation parameters, ΔH‡ = 27(±1) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = 6.9(±2.3) eu for 3 and ΔH‡ = 28(±1) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = 9.0(±3.0) eu for 4, consistent with a process involving the homolysis of a weak Ti-O bond to generate the transient Cp2Ti(III)Cl and the nitroxyl radical. Thermolysis of the titanocene TEMPO complexes in the presence of epoxides leads to the Cp 2Ti(III)Cl-mediated ring-opening of the epoxide followed by trapping by the nitroxyl radical. The X-ray crystal structure of the Ti-TEMPO derivative, Cp2-TiCl(4-MeO-TEMPO) (4), is reported. DFT (B3LYP/6-31G*) calculations and experimental studies reveal that the strength of the Ti-O bond decreases dramatically with the number of cyclopentadienyl groups on titanium. The calculated Ti-O bond strength of the monocyclopentadienyl complex 2 is 43 kcal/mol, whereas that of the biscyclopentadienyl complex 3 is 17 kcal/mol, a difference of 26 kcal/mol. These studies reveal that the strength of these Ti-O bonds can be tuned over an interesting and experimentally accessible temperature range by appropriate ligation on titanium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3807-3816
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume127
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 23 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

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