Animal glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3)/SHAGGY kinases have been studied for more than 20 years, whereas plant glycogen synthase kinase 3/SHAGGY-like kinases (GSKs) have only recently entered the scene. Present evidence indicates that plant GSKs are involved in different processes, such as flower development, brassinosteroid signaling, NaCl stress and wound responses. In contrast to mammals, which contain two genes, plants have a multigene family of GSKs. Analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed the existence of ten GSK genes that fall into four distinct subfamilies. We discuss the functions and mechanisms of GSK action in plants and other organisms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science