Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Hmwe Hmwe Kyu, Degu Abate, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Solomon M. Abay, Cristiana Abbafati, Nooshin Abbasi, Hedayat Abbastabar, Foad Abd-Allah, Jemal Abdela, Ahmed Abdelalim, Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Molla Abebe, Zegeye Abebe, Olifan Zewdie Abil, Victor Aboyans, Aklilu Roba Abrham, Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad, Niveen M.E. Abu-Rmeileh, Manfred Mario Kokou AccrombessiDilaram Acharya, Pawan Acharya, Ilana N. Ackerman, Abdu A. Adamu, Oladimeji M. Adebayo, Victor Adekanmbi, Zanfina Ademi, Olatunji O. Adetokunboh, Mina G. Adib, Jose C. Adsuar, Kossivi Agbelenko Afanvi, Mohsen Afarideh, Ashkan Afshin, Gina Agarwal, Kareha M. Agesa, Rakesh Aggarwal, Sargis Aghasi Aghayan, Anurag Agrawal, Alireza Ahmadi, Mehdi Ahmadi, Hamid Ahmadieh, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Sayem Ahmed, Amani Nidhal Aichour, Ibtihel Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour, Tomi Akinyemiju, Nadia Akseer, Ziyad Al-Aly, Ayman Al-Eyadhy, Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi, Fares Alahdab, Khurshid Alam, Tahiya Alam, Alaa Alashi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Kefyalew Addis Alene, Mehran Alijanzadeh, Reza Alizadeh-Navaei, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Ala'A Alkerwi, François Alla, Peter Allebeck, Jordi Alonso, Ubai Alsharif, Khalid Altirkawi, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Leopold N. Aminde, Erfan Amini, Mohammadreza Amiresmaili, Walid Ammar, Yaw Ampem Amoako, Nahla Hamed Anber, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Sofia Androudi, Megbaru Debalkie Animut, Mina Anjomshoa, Mustafa Geleto Ansha, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Jalal Arabloo, Olatunde Aremu, Johan Ärnlöv, Amit Arora, Megha Arora, Al Artaman, Krishna K. Aryal, Hamid Asayesh, Zerihun Ataro, Marcel Ausloos, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Euripide F.G.A. Avokpaho, Ashish Awasthi, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Rakesh Ayer, Peter S. Azzopardi, Arefeh Babazadeh, Hamid Badali, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Ayele Geleto Bali, Maciej Banach, Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub, Aleksandra Barac, Miguel A. Barboza, Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Simon Barquera, Lope H. Barrero, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Neeraj Bedi, Ettore Beghi, Masoud Behzadifar, Meysam Behzadifar, Bayu Begashaw Bekele, Eyasu Tamru Bekru, Abate Bekele Belachew, Yihalem Abebe Belay, Michelle L. Bell, Aminu K. Bello, Derrick A. Bennett, Isabela M. Bensenor, Adugnaw Berhane, Eduardo Bernabe, Robert S. Bernstein, Mircea Beuran, Tina Beyranvand, Neeraj Bhala, Samir Bhatt, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Belete Biadgo, Molly H. Biehl, Ali Bijani, Boris Bikbov, Ver Bilano, Nigus Bililign, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Donal Bisanzio, Tone Bjorge, Archie Bleyer, Eshetu Mulisa Bobasa, Ibrahim R. Bou-Orm, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert Bourne, Oliver J. Brady, Luisa C. Brant, Carol Brayne, Alexandra Brazinova, Nicholas J.K. Breitborde, Hermann Brenner, Paul Svitil Briant, Andrey Nikolaevich Briko, Gabrielle Britton, Traolach Brugha, Rachelle Buchbinder, Reinhard Busse, Zahid A. Butt, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon, Jorge Cano, Rosario Cárdenas, Juan J. Carrero, Austin Carter, Félix Carvalho, Carlos A. Castaneda-Orjuela, Jacqueline Castillo Rivas, Franz Castro, Ferrán Catalá-López, Kelly M. Cercy, Ester Cerin, Yazan Chaiah, Jung Chen Chang, Fiona J. Charlson, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Peggy Pei Chia Chiang, Abdulaal Chitheer, Jee Young J. Choi, Hanne Christensen, Devasahayam J. Christopher, Sheng Chia Chung, Flavia M. Cicuttini, Massimo Cirillo, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Cyrus Cooper, Paolo Angelo Cortesi, Monica Cortinovis, Ewerton Cousin, Michael H. Criqui, Elizabeth A. Cromwell, Marita Cross, John A. Crump, Alemneh Kabeta Daba, Berihun Assefa Dachew, Abel Fekadu Dadi, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Paul I. Dargan, Ahmad Daryani, Rajat Das Gupta, José Das Neves, Tamirat Tesfaye Dasa, Dragos Virgil Davitoiu, Fernando Pio De La Hoz, Diego De Leo, Jan Walter De Neve, Hans De Steur, Meaza Girma Degefa, Louisa Degenhardt, Selina Deiparine, Gebre Teklemariam Demoz, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Kebede Deribe, Nikolaos Dervenis, Don C. Des Jarlais, Subhojit Dey, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Meghnath Dhimal, Mesfin Tadese Dinberu, M. Ashworth Dirac, Shirin Djalalinia, Linh Doan, Klara Dokova, David Teye Doku, E. Ray Dorsey, Kerrie E. Doyle, Tim Robert Driscoll, Manisha Dubey, Eleonora Dubljanin, Eyasu Ejeta Duken, Bruce B. Duncan, Andre R. Duraes, Hedyeh Ebrahimi, Soheil Ebrahimpour, Michelle M. Echko, Dumessa Edessa, David Edvardsson, Andem Effiong, Anne Elise Eggen, Joshua R. Ehrlich, Charbel El Bcheraoui, Ziad El-Khatib, Iqbal R.F. Elyazar, Ahmadali Enayati, Melese Linger Endalifer, Aman Yesuf Endries, Benjamin Er, Holly E. Erskine, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Alireza Esteghamati, Sadaf Esteghamati, Hamed Fakhim, Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Mohammad Fareed, Farzaneh Farhadi, Talha A. Farid, Carla Sofia E. Sá Farinha, Andrea Farioli, Andre Faro, Farshad Farzadfar, Ali Akbar Fazaeli, Valery L. Feigin, Netsanet Fentahun, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Eduarda Fernandes, Joao C. Fernandes, Alize J. Ferrari, Manuela L. Ferreira, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Christina Fitzmaurice, Nataliya A. Foigt, Kyle J. Foreman, Tahvi D. Frank, Takeshi Fukumoto, Nancy Fullman, Thomas Fürst, Joao M. Furtado, Emmanuela Gakidou, Seana Gall, Silvano Gallus, Morsaleh Ganji, Alberto L. Garcia-Basteiro, William M. Gardner, Abadi Kahsu Gebre, Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin, Teklu Gebrehiwo Gebremichael, Tilayie Feto Gelano, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Ricard Genova-Maleras, Yilma Chisha Dea Geramo, Peter W. Gething, Kebede Embaye Gezae, Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami, Keyghobad Ghadiri, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Mamata Ghimire, Aloke Gopal Ghoshal, Paramjit Singh Gill, Tiffany K. Gill, Ibrahim Abdelmageed Ginawi, Giorgia Giussani, Elena V. Gnedovskaya, Ellen M. Goldberg, Srinivas Goli, Hector Gómez-Dantés, Philimon N. Gona, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Taren M. Gorman, Alessandra C. Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart, Ayman Grada, Giuseppe Grosso, Harish Chander Gugnani, Francis Guillemin, Yuming Guo, Prakash C. Gupta, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Tanush Gupta, Reyna Alma Gutiérrez, Bishal Gyawali, Juanita A. Haagsma, Vladimir Hachinski, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli, Tekleberhan B. Hagos, Tewodros Tesfa Hailegiyorgis, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Randah R. Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Alexis J. Handal, Graeme J. Hankey, Yuantao Hao, Hilda L. Harb, Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan, Hamidreza Haririan, Josep Maria Haro, Hadi Hassankhani, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J. Hay, Simon I. Hay, Akbar Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Behzad Heibati, Delia Hendrie, Andualem Henok, Ileana Heredia-Pi, Claudiu Herteliu, Fatemeh Heydarpour, Pouria Heydarpour, Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu, Hans W. Hoek, Howard J. Hoffman, Michael K. Hole, Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Praveen Hoogar, H. Dean Hosgood, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Mihaela Hostiuc, Sorin Hostiuc, Peter J. Hotez, Damian G. Hoy, Mohamed Hsairi, Aung Soe Htet, John J. Huang, Kim Moesgaard Iburg, Chad Thomas Ikeda, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Caleb Mackay Salpeter Irvine, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Farhad Islami, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Leila Jahangiry, Nader Jahanmehr, Sudhir Kumar Jain, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Spencer L. James, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Ravi Prakash Jha, Vivekanand Jha, John S. Ji, Catherine O. Johnson, Jost B. Jonas, Jitendra Jonnagaddala, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Ankur Joshi, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Suresh Banayya Jungari, Mikk Jürisson, Zubair Kabir, Rajendra Kadel, Amaha Kahsay, Rizwan Kalani, Tanuj Kanchan, Chittaranjan Kar, Manoochehr Karami, Behzad Karami Matin, André Karch, Corine Karema, Narges Karimi, Seyed M. Karimi, Amir Kasaeian, Dessalegn H. Kassa, Getachew Mullu Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale Kassa, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Zhila Kazemi, Ali Kazemi Karyani, Masoud Masoud Keighobadi, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Laura Kemmer, Grant Rodgers Kemp, Andre Pascal Kengne, Andre Keren, Yousef Saleh Khader, Behzad Khafaei, Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Alireza Khajavi, Nauman Khalid, Ibrahim A. Khalil, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Muhammad Ali Khan, Young Ho Khang, Mona M. Khater, Mohammad Khazaei, Abdullah T. Khoja, Ardeshir Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein Khosravi, Aliasghar A. Kiadaliri, Zelalem Teklemariam Kidanemariam, Daniel N. Kiirithio, Cho Il Kim, Daniel Kim, Young Eun Kim, Yun Jin Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Yohannes Kinfu, Adnan Kisa, Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek, Ann Kristin Skrindo Knudsen, Jonathan M. Kocarnik, Sonali Kochhar, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Tufa Kolola, Jacek A. Kopec, Soewarta Kosen, Georgios A. Kotsakis, Parvaiz A. Koul, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Sanjay Krishnaswami, Kristopher J. Krohn, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, G. Anil Kumar, Manasi Kumar, Igor Kuzin, Deepesh P. Lad, Sheetal D. Lad, Alessandra Lafranconi, Ratilal Lalloo, Tea Lallukka, Faris Hasan Lami, Justin J. Lang, Sinéad M. Langan, Van C. Lansingh, Arman Latifi, Kathryn Mei Ming Lau, Jeffrey V. Lazarus, Janet L. Leasher, Jorge R. Ledesma, Paul H. Lee, James Leigh, Mostafa Leili, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Janni Leung, Miriam Levi, Sonia Lewycka, Shanshan Li, Yichong Li, Xiaofeng Liang, Yu Liao, Misgan Legesse Liben, Lee Ling Lim, Stephen S. Lim, Miteku Andualem Limenih, Shai Linn, Shiwei Liu, Katharine J. Looker, Alan D. Lopez, Stefan Lorkowski, Paulo A. Lotufo, Rafael Lozano, Tim C.D. Lucas, Raimundas Lunevicius, Ronan A. Lyons, Stefan Ma, Erlyn Rachelle King Macarayan, Mark T. Mackay, Emilie R. Maddison, Fabiana Madotto, Dhaval P. Maghavani, Hue Thi Mai, Marek Majdan, Reza Majdzadeh, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Abdullah A. Mamun, Ana Laura Manda, Helena Manguerra, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Ana Maria Mantilla Herrera, Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani, Joemer C. Maravilla, Wagner Marcenes, Ashley Marks, Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Ira Martopullo, Winfried März, Melvin B. Marzan, Joao Massano, Benjamin Ballard Massenburg, Manu Raj Mathur, Pallab K. Maulik, Mohsen Mazidi, Colm McAlinden, John J. McGrath, Martin McKee, Brian J. McMahon, Suresh Mehata, Ravi Mehrotra, Kala M. Mehta, Varshil Mehta, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Tesfa Mekonen, Addisu Melese, Mulugeta Melku, Peter T.N. Memiah, Ziad A. Memish, Walter Mendoza, Getnet Mengistu, George A. Mensah, Seid Tiku Mereta, Atte Meretoja, Tuomo J. Meretoja, Tomislav Mestrovic, Bartosz Miazgowski, Tomasz Miazgowski, Anoushka I. Millear, Ted R. Miller, G. K. Mini, Mojde Mirarefin, Andreea Mirica, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Awoke Temesgen Misganaw, Philip B. Mitchell, Habtamu Mitiku, Babak Moazen, Bahram Mohajer, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Moslem Mohammadi, Noushin Mohammadifard, Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Shafiu Mohammed, Farnam Mohebi, Ali H. Mokdad, Mariam Molokhia, Lorenzo Monasta, Julio Cesar Montanez, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghobad Moradi, Mahmoudreza Moradi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mehdi Moradinazar, Paula Moraga, Lidia Morawska, Ilais Moreno Velásquez, Joana Morgado-Da-Costa, Shane Douglas Morrison, Marilita M. Moschos, Seyyed Meysam Mousavi, Kalayu Brhane Mruts, Achenef Asmamaw Muche, Kindie Fentahun Muchie, Ulrich Otto Mueller, Oumer Sada Muhammed, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Kate Muller, John Everett Mumford, G. V.S. Murthy, Kamarul Imran Musa, Ghulam Mustafa, Ashraf F. Nabhan, Chie Nagata, Gabriele Nagel, Mohsen Naghavi, Aliya Naheed, Azin Nahvijou, Gurudatta Naik, Farid Najafi, Hae Sung Nam, Vinay Nangia, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Nahid Neamati, Ionut Negoi, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Subas Neupane, Charles Richard James Newton, Josephine W. Ngunjiri, Anh Quynh Nguyen, Grant Nguyen, Ha Thu Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Huong Thanh Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Minh Nguyen, Nam Ba Nguyen, Son Hoang Nguyen, Emma Nichols, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Molly R. Nixon, Shuhei Nomura, Mehdi Noroozi, Bo Norrving, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Hamid Reza Nouri, Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Mohammad Reza Nowroozi, Elaine O. Nsoesie, Peter S. Nyasulu, Christopher M. Odell, Richard Ofori-Asenso, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, In Hwan Oh, Olanrewaju Oladimeji, Andrew T. Olagunju, Tinuke O. Olagunju, Pedro R. Olivares, Helen Elizabeth Olsen, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun Olusanya, Kanyin L. Ong, Sok King Ong, Eyal Oren, Alberto Ortiz, Erika Ota, Stanislav S. Otstavnov, Simon Overland, Mayowa Ojo Owolabi, P. A. Mahesh, Rosana Pacella, Abhijit P. Pakhare, Amir H. Pakpour, Adrian Pana, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Eun Kee Park, James Park, Charles D.H. Parry, Hadi Parsian, Yahya Pasdar, Shanti Patel, Snehal T. Patil, Ajay Patle, George C. Patton, Vishnupriya Rao Paturi, Deepak Paudel, Katherine R. Paulson, Neil Pearce, Alexandre Pereira, David M. Pereira, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, Max Petzold, Hai Quang Pham, Michael R. Phillips, David M. Pigott, Julian David Pillay, Michael A. Piradov, Meghdad Pirsaheb, Farhad Pishgar, Oleguer Plana-Ripoll, Suzanne Polinder, Svetlana Popova, Maarten J. Postma, Akram Pourshams, Hossein Poustchi, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Swayam Prakash, V. Prakash, Narayan Prasad, Caroline A. Purcell, Mostafa Qorbani, D. Alex Quistberg, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Alireza Rafiei, Fakher Rahim, Kazem Rahimi, Zohreh Rahimi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mahfuzar Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Fatemeh Rajati, Prabhat Ranjan, Puja C. Rao, Davide Rasella, David Laith Rawaf, Salman Rawaf, K. Srinath Reddy, Robert C. Reiner, Marissa Bettay Reitsma, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Serge Resnikoff, Satar Rezaei, Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro, Nicholas L.S. Roberts, Stephen R. Robinson, Leonardo Roever, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Ali Rostami, Gregory A. Roth, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Enrico Rubagotti, Perminder S. Sachdev, Nafis Sadat, Ehsan Sadeghi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Hosein Safari, Yahya Safari, Roya Safari-Faramani, Mahdi Safdarian, Sare Safi, Saeid Safiri, Rajesh Sagar, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Haniye Sadat Sajadi, Nasir Salam, Joseph S. 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Stein, Caitlyn Steiner, Timothy J. Steiner, Mark A. Stokes, Lars Jacob Stovner, Michelle L. Subart, Agus Sudaryanto, Mu'Awiyyah Babale Sufiyan, Gerhard Sulo, Bruno F. Sunguya, Patrick John Sur, Bryan L. Sykes, P. N. Sylaja, Dillon O. Sylte, Cassandra E.I. Szoeke, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Takahiro Tabuchi, Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla, Nikhil Tandon, Segen Gebremeskel Tassew, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Nuno Taveira, Hugh R. Taylor, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Tigist Gashaw Tekalign, Shishay Wahdey Tekelemedhin, Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle, Mohamad Hani Temsah, Omar Temsah, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Belay Tessema, Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Andrew Theis, Sathish Thirunavukkarasu, Nihal Thomas, Binyam Tilahun, Quyen G. To, Marcello Tonelli, Roman Topor-Madry, Anna E. Torre, Miguel Tortajada-Girbés, Mathilde Touvier, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Jeffrey A. Towbin, Bach Xuan Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Christopher E. Troeger, Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik, Derrick Tsoi, Lorainne Tudor Car, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Irfan Ullah, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Rachel L. Updike, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Olalekan A. Uthman, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Afsane Vaezi, Pascual R. Valdez, Elena Varavikova, Santosh Varughese, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Santos Villafaina, Francesco S. Violante, Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov, Vasily Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Kia Vosoughi, Isidora S. Vujcic, Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew, Yasir Waheed, Yafeng Wang, Yuan Pang Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G. Weintraub, Daniel J. Weiss, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs, Andrea Werdecker, T. Eoin West, Ronny Westerman, Harvey A. Whiteford, Justyna Widecka, Tissa Wijeratne, Hywel C. Williams, Lauren B. Wilner, Shadrach Wilson, Andrea Sylvia Winkler, Alison B. Wiyeh, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Charles D.A. Wolfe, Anthony D. 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920 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: How long one lives, how many years of life are spent in good and poor health, and how the population's state of health and leading causes of disability change over time all have implications for policy, planning, and provision of services. We comparatively assessed the patterns and trends of healthy life expectancy (HALE), which quantifies the number of years of life expected to be lived in good health, and the complementary measure of disability-adjusted lifeyears (DALYs), a composite measure of disease burden capturing both premature mortality and prevalence and severityof ill health, for 359 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories over the past 28 years. Methods We used data for age-speci?c mortality rates, years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature mortality, and years lived with disability (YLDs) from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to calculate HALE and DALYs from 1990 to 2017. We calculated HALE using age-specific mortality rates and YLDs per capita for each location, age, sex, and year. We calculated DALYs for 359 causes as the sum of YLLs and YLDs. We assessed how observed HALE and DALYs differed by country and sex from expected trends based on Sociodemographic Index (SDI). We also analysed HALE by decomposing years of life gained into years spent in good health and in poor health, between 1990 and 2017, and extra years lived by females compared with males. Findings Globally, from 1990 to 2017, life expectancy at birth increased by 7·4 years (95% uncertainty interval 7·1-7·8), from 65·6 years (65·3-65·8) in 1990 to 73·0 years (72·7-73·3) in 2017. The increase in years of life varied from 5·1 years (5·0-5·3) in high SDI countries to 12·0 years (11·3-12·8) in low SDI countries. Of the additional years of life expected at birth, 26·3% (20·1-33·1) were expected to be spent in poor health in high SDI countries compared with 11·7% (8·8-15·1) in low-middle SDI countries. HALE at birth increased by 6·3 years (5·9-6·7), from 57·0 years (54·6-59·1) in 1990 to 63·3 years (60·5-65·7) in 2017. The increase varied from 3·8 years (3·4-4·1) in high SDI countries to 10·5 years (9·8-11·2) in low SDI countries. Even larger variations in HALE than these were observed between countries, ranging from 1·0 year (0·4-1·7) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (62·4 years [59·9-64·7] in 1990 to 63·5 years [60·9-65·8] in 2017) to 23·7 years (21·9-25·6) in Eritrea (30·7 years [28·9-32·2] in 1990 to 54·4 years [51·5-57·1] in 2017). In most countries, the increase in HALE was smaller than the increase in overall life expectancy, indicating more years lived in poor health. In 180 of 195 countries and territories, females were expected to live longer than males in 2017, with extra years lived varying from 1·4 years (0·6-2·3) in Algeria to 11·9 years (10·9-12·9) in Ukraine. Of the extra years gained, the proportion spent in poor health varied largely across countries, with less than 20% of additional years spent in poor health in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, and Slovakia, whereas in Bahrain all the extra years were spent in poor health. In 2017, the highest estimate of HALE at birth was in Singapore for both females (75·8 years [72·4-78·7]) and males (72·6 years [69·8-75·0]) and the lowest estimates were in Central African Republic (47·0 years [43·7-50·2] for females and 42·8 years [40·1-45·6] for males). Globally, in 2017, the ?ve leading causes of DALYs were neonatal disorders, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, lower respiratory infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALY rates decreased by 41·3% (38·8-43·5) for communicable diseases and by 49·8% (47·9-51·6) for neonatal disorders. For non-communicable diseases, global DALYs increased by 40·1% (36·8-43·0), although age-standardised DALY rates decreased by 18·1% (16·0-20·2). Interpretation With increasing life expectancy in most countries, the question of whether the additional years of life gained are spent in good health or poor health has been increasingly relevant because of the potential policy implications, such as health-care provisions and extending retirement ages. In some locations, a large proportion of those additional years are spent in poor health. Large inequalities in HALE and disease burden exist across countries in different SDI quintiles and between sexes. The burden of disabling conditions has serious implications for health system planning and health-related expenditures. Despite the progress made in reducing the burden of communicable diseases and neonatal disorders in low SDI countries, the speed of this progress could be increased by scaling up proven interventions. The global trends among non-communicable diseases indicate that more effort is needed to maximise HALE, such as risk prevention and attention to upstream determinants of health.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1859-1922
Number of pages64
JournalThe Lancet
Volume392
Issue number10159
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 10 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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