Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990–2019: Update From the GBD 2019 Study

Gregory A. Roth, George A. Mensah, Catherine O. Johnson, Giovanni Addolorato, Enrico Ammirati, Larry M. Baddour, Noël C. Barengo, Andrea Z. Beaton, Emelia J. Benjamin, Catherine P. Benziger, Aimé Bonny, Michael Brauer, Marianne Brodmann, Thomas J. Cahill, Jonathan Carapetis, Alberico L. Catapano, Sumeet S. Chugh, Leslie T. Cooper, Josef Coresh, Michael CriquiNicole DeCleene, Kim A. Eagle, Sophia Emmons-Bell, Valery L. Feigin, Joaquim Fernández-Solà, Gerry Fowkes, Emmanuela Gakidou, Scott M. Grundy, Feng J. He, George Howard, Frank Hu, Lesley Inker, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Walter Koroshetz, Carl Lavie, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Hong S. Lu, Antonio Mirijello, Awoke Misganaw Temesgen, Ali Mokdad, Andrew E. Moran, Paul Muntner, Jagat Narula, Bruce Neal, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Glaucia Moraes de Oliveira, Catherine Otto, Mayowa Owolabi, Michael Pratt, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Marissa Reitsma, Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro, Nancy Rigotti, Anthony Rodgers, Craig Sable, Saate Shakil, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle, Benjamin Stark, Johan Sundström, Patrick Timpel, Imad M. Tleyjeh, Marco Valgimigli, Theo Vos, Paul K. Whelton, Magdi Yacoub, Liesl Zuhlke, Christopher Murray, Valentin Fuster, Noel C. Barengo, Andrea Beaton, Aime Bonny, Jonathan R. Carapetis, Sumeet Chugh, Michael H. Criqui, Nicole K. DeCleene, Joaquim Fernández-Sola, F. Gerry R. Fowkes, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Walter J. Koroshetz, Awoke T. Misganaw, Ali H. Mokdad, Gláucia M.M. Oliveira, Catherine M. Otto, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Marissa B. Reitsma, Nancy A. Rigotti, Craig A. Sable, Saate S. Shakil, Karen Sliwa, Benjamin A. Stark, Imad I. Tleyjeh, Liesl J. Zuhlke, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Alireza Abdi, Aidin Abedi, Victor Aboyans, Woldu A. Abrha, Eman Abu-Gharbieh, Abdelrahman I. Abushouk, Dilaram Acharya, Tim Adair, Oladimeji M. Adebayo, Zanfina Ademi, Shailesh M. Advani, Khashayar Afshari, Ashkan Afshin, Gina Agarwal, Pradyumna Agasthi, Sohail Ahmad, Sepideh Ahmadi, Muktar B. Ahmed, Budi Aji, Yonas Akalu, Wuraola Akande-Sholabi, Addis Aklilu, Chisom J. Akunna, Fares Alahdab, Ayman Al-Eyadhy, Khalid F. Alhabib, Sheikh M. Alif, Vahid Alipour, Syed M. Aljunid, François Alla, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Sami Almustanyir, Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi, Adeladza K. Amegah, Saeed Amini, Arya Aminorroaya, Hubert Amu, Dickson A. Amugsi, Robert Ancuceanu, Deanna Anderlini, Tudorel Andrei, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Zelalem A. Anteneh, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Benny Antony, Razique Anwer, Lambert T. Appiah, Jalal Arabloo, Johan Ärnlöv, Kurnia D. Artanti, Zerihun Ataro, Marcel Ausloos, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Asma T. Awan, Mamaru A. Awoke, Henok T. Ayele, Muluken A. Ayza, Samad Azari, Darshan B. B, Nafiseh Baheiraei, Atif A. Baig, Ahad Bakhtiari, Maciej Banach, Palash C. Banik, Emerson A. Baptista, Miguel A. Barboza, Lingkan Barua, Sanjay Basu, Neeraj Bedi, Yannick Béjot, Derrick A. Bennett, Isabela M. Bensenor, Adam E. Berman, Yihienew M. Bezabih, Akshaya S. Bhagavathula, Sonu Bhaskar, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Ali Bijani, Boris Bikbov, Mulugeta M. Birhanu, Archith Boloor, Luisa C. Brant, Hermann Brenner, Nikolay I. Briko, Zahid A. Butt, Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos, Leah E. Cahill, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Luis A. Cámera, Ismael R. Campos-Nonato, Carlos Cantu-Brito, Josip Car, Juan J. Carrero, Felix Carvalho, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Ferrán Catalá-López, Ester Cerin, Jaykaran Charan, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Simiao Chen, Ken L. Chin, Jee Young J. Choi, Dinh Toi Chu, Sheng Chia Chung, Massimo Cirillo, Sean Coffey, Sara Conti, Vera M. Costa, David K. Cundiff, Omid Dadras, Baye Dagnew, Xiaochen Dai, Albertino A.M. Damasceno, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Kairat Davletov, Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora, Fernando P. De la Hoz, Jan Walter De Neve, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Meseret Derbew Molla, Behailu T. Derseh, Rupak Desai, Günther Deuschl, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Meghnath Dhimal, Raja Ram Dhungana, Mostafa Dianatinasab, Daniel Diaz, Shirin Djalalinia, Klara Dokova, Abdel Douiri, Bruce B. Duncan, Andre R. Duraes, Arielle W. Eagan, Sanam Ebtehaj, Aziz Eftekhari, Sahar Eftekharzadeh, Michael Ekholuenetale, Nevine El Nahas, Islam Y. Elgendy, Muhammed Elhadi, Shaimaa I. El-Jaafary, Sadaf Esteghamati, Atkilt E. Etisso, Oghenowede Eyawo, Ibtihal Fadhil, Emerito Jose A. Faraon, Pawan S. Faris, Medhat Farwati, Farshad Farzadfar, Eduarda Fernandes, Carlota Fernandez Prendes, Pietro Ferrara, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, David Flood, Takeshi Fukumoto, Mohamed M. Gad, Shilpa Gaidhane, Morsaleh Ganji, Jalaj Garg, Abadi K. Gebre, Birhan G. Gebregiorgis, Kidane Z. Gebregzabiher, Gebreamlak G. Gebremeskel, Lemma Getacher, Abera Getachew Obsa, Alireza Ghajar, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Nermin Ghith, Simona Giampaoli, Syed Amir Gilani, Paramjit S. Gill, Richard F. Gillum, Ekaterina V. Glushkova, Elena V. Gnedovskaya, Mahaveer Golechha, Kebebe B. Gonfa, Amir Hossein Goudarzian, Alessandra C. Goulart, Jenny S. Guadamuz, Avirup Guha, Yuming Guo, Rajeev Gupta, Vladimir Hachinski, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Teklehaimanot G. Haile, Randah R. Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Graeme J. Hankey, Arief Hargono, Risky K. Hartono, Maryam Hashemian, Abdiwahab Hashi, Shoaib Hassan, Hamid Y. Hassen, Rasmus J. Havmoeller, Simon I. Hay, Khezar Hayat, Golnaz Heidari, Claudiu Herteliu, Ramesh Holla, Mostafa Hosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Mihaela Hostiuc, Sorin Hostiuc, Mowafa Househ, Junjie Huang, Ayesha Humayun, Ivo Iavicoli, Charles U. Ibeneme, Segun E. Ibitoye, Olayinka S. Ilesanmi, Irena M. Ilic, Milena D. Ilic, Usman Iqbal, Seyed Sina N. Irvani, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Rakibul M. Islam, Hiroyasu Iso, Masao Iwagami, Vardhmaan Jain, Tahereh Javaheri, Sathish Kumar Jayapal, Shubha Jayaram, Ranil Jayawardena, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Ravi P. Jha, Jost B. Jonas, Jitendra Jonnagaddala, Farahnaz Joukar, Jacek J. Jozwiak, Mikk Jürisson, Ali Kabir, Tanvir Kahlon, Rizwan Kalani, Rohollah Kalhor, Ashwin Kamath, Ibrahim Kamel, Himal Kandel, Amit Kandel, André Karch, Ayele Semachew Kasa, Patrick D.M.C. Katoto, Gbenga A. Kayode, Yousef S. Khader, Mohammad Khammarnia, Muhammad S. Khan, Md Nuruzzaman Khan, Maseer Khan, Ejaz A. Khan, Khaled Khatab, Gulam M.A. Kibria, Yun Jin Kim, Gyu Ri Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Sezer Kisa, Adnan Kisa, Mika Kivimäki, Dhaval Kolte, Ali Koolivand, Vladimir A. Korshunov, Sindhura Lakshmi Koulmane Laxminarayana, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Vaman Kulkarni, G. Anil Kumar, Nithin Kumar, Om P. Kurmi, Dian Kusuma, Gene F. Kwan, Carlo La Vecchia, Ben Lacey, Tea Lallukka, Qing Lan, Savita Lasrado, Zohra S. Lassi, Paolo Lauriola, Wayne R. Lawrence, Avula Laxmaiah, Kate E. LeGrand, Ming Chieh Li, Bingyu Li, Shanshan Li, Stephen S. Lim, Lee Ling Lim, Hualiang Lin, Ziqiang Lin, Ro Ting Lin, Xuefeng Liu, Alan D. Lopez, Stefan Lorkowski, Paulo A. Lotufo, Alessandra Lugo, Nirmal K. M, Fabiana Madotto, Morteza Mahmoudi, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Ahmad A. Malik, Abdullah A. Mamun, Navid Manafi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Lorenzo G. Mantovani, Santi Martini, Manu R. Mathur, Giampiero Mazzaglia, Suresh Mehata, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Toni Meier, Ritesh G. Menezes, Atte Meretoja, Tomislav Mestrovic, Bartosz Miazgowski, Tomasz Miazgowski, Irmina Maria Michalek, Ted R. Miller, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Hamed Mirzaei, Babak Moazen, Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Yousef Mohammad, Dara K. Mohammad, Shafiu Mohammed, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Yaser Mokhayeri, Mariam Molokhia, Ahmed A. Montasir, Ghobad Moradi, Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Paula Moraga, Lidia Morawska, Ilais Moreno Velásquez, Jakub Morze, Sumaira Mubarik, Walter Muruet, Kamarul Imran Musa, Ahamarshan J. Nagarajan, Mahdi Nalini, Vinay Nangia, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Sreenivas Narasimha Swamy, Bruno R. Nascimento, Vinod C. Nayak, Javad Nazari, Milad Nazarzadeh, Ruxandra I. Negoi, Sandhya Neupane Kandel, Huong L.T. Nguyen, Molly R. Nixon, Bo Norrving, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Brice E. Nouthe, Christoph Nowak, Oluwakemi O. Odukoya, Felix A. Ogbo, Andrew T. Olagunju, Hans Orru, Alberto Ortiz, Samuel M. Ostroff, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Raffaele Palladino, Adrian Pana, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Utsav Parekh, Eun Cheol Park, Mojtaba Parvizi, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, Urvish K. Patel, Mona Pathak, Rajan Paudel, Veincent Christian F. Pepito, Arokiasamy Perianayagam, Norberto Perico, Hai Q. Pham, Thomas Pilgrim, Michael A. Piradov, Farhad Pishgar, Vivek Podder, Roman V. Polibin, Akram Pourshams, Dimas R.A. Pribadi, Navid Rabiee, Mohammad Rabiee, Amir Radfar, Alireza Rafiei, Fakher Rahim, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Ivo Rakovac, Pradhum Ram, Sudha Ramalingam, Juwel Rana, Priyanga Ranasinghe, Sowmya J. Rao, Priya Rathi, Lal Rawal, Wasiq F. Rawasia, Reza Rawassizadeh, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Aziz Rezapour, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Ross L. Roberts-Thomson, Leonardo Roever, Peter Rohloff, Michele Romoli, Gholamreza Roshandel, Godfrey M. Rwegerera, Seyedmohammad Saadatagah, Maha M. Saber-Ayad, Siamak Sabour, Simona Sacco, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Saeed Safari, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Sana Salehi, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Mehrnoosh Samaei, Abdallah M. Samy, Itamar S. Santos, Milena M. Santric-Milicevic, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Arash Sarveazad, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Monika Sawhney, Mete Saylan, Maria I. Schmidt, Aletta E. Schutte, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Feng Sha, Saeed Shahabi, Izza Shahid, Masood A. Shaikh, Mahdi Shamali, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Md Shajedur Rahman Shawon, Aziz Sheikh, Mika Shigematsu, Min Jeong Shin, Jae Il Shin, Rahman Shiri, Ivy Shiue, Kerem Shuval, Soraya Siabani, Tariq J. Siddiqi, Diego A.S. Silva, Jasvinder A. Singh, Ambrish Singh Mtech, Valentin Y. Skryabin, Anna A. Skryabina, Amin Soheili, Emma E. Spurlock, Leo Stockfelt, Stefan Stortecky, Saverio Stranges, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Hooman Tadbiri, Eyayou G. Tadesse, Degena B. Tadesse, Masih Tajdini, Md Tariqujjaman, Berhane F. Teklehaimanot, Mohamad Hani Temsah, Ayenew K. Tesema, Bhaskar Thakur, Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan, Rekha Thapar, Amanda G. Thrift, Binod Timalsina, Marcello Tonelli, Mathilde Touvier, Marcos R. Tovani-Palone, Avnish Tripathi, Jaya P. Tripathy, Thomas C. Truelsen, Guesh M. Tsegay, Gebiyaw W. Tsegaye, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Biruk S. Tusa, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Krishna Kishore Umapathi, Brigid Unim, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Muhammad S. Usman, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Pascual R. Valdez, Tommi J. Vasankari, Diana Z. Velazquez, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Giang T. Vu, Isidora S. Vujcic, Yasir Waheed, Yanzhong Wang, Fang Wang, Jingkai Wei, Robert G. Weintraub, Abrha H. Weldemariam, Ronny Westerman, Andrea S. Winkler, Charles S. Wiysonge, Charles D.A. Wolfe, Befikadu Legesse Wubishet, Gelin Xu, Ali Yadollahpour, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Lijing L. Yan, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Yuichiro Yano, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Tomas Y. Yeheyis, Yigizie Yeshaw, Christopher S. Yilgwan, Naohiro Yonemoto, Chuanhua Yu, Hasan Yusefzadeh, Geevar Zachariah, Sojib Bin Zaman, Muhammed S. Zaman, Maryam Zamanian, Ramin Zand, Alireza Zandifar, Afshin Zarghi, Mikhail S. Zastrozhin, Anasthasia Zastrozhina, Zhi Jiang Zhang, Yunquan Zhang, Wangjian Zhang, Chenwen Zhong, Zhiyong Zou, Yves Miel H. Zuniga, Christopher J.L. Murray

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Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and a major contributor to disability. This paper reviews the magnitude of total CVD burden, including 13 underlying causes of cardiovascular death and 9 related risk factors, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. GBD, an ongoing multinational collaboration to provide comparable and consistent estimates of population health over time, used all available population-level data sources on incidence, prevalence, case fatality, mortality, and health risks to produce estimates for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Prevalent cases of total CVD nearly doubled from 271 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 257 to 285 million) in 1990 to 523 million (95% UI: 497 to 550 million) in 2019, and the number of CVD deaths steadily increased from 12.1 million (95% UI:11.4 to 12.6 million) in 1990, reaching 18.6 million (95% UI: 17.1 to 19.7 million) in 2019. The global trends for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of life lost also increased significantly, and years lived with disability doubled from 17.7 million (95% UI: 12.9 to 22.5 million) to 34.4 million (95% UI:24.9 to 43.6 million) over that period. The total number of DALYs due to IHD has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 182 million (95% UI: 170 to 194 million) DALYs, 9.14 million (95% UI: 8.40 to 9.74 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 197 million (95% UI: 178 to 220 million) prevalent cases of IHD in 2019. The total number of DALYs due to stroke has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 143 million (95% UI: 133 to 153 million) DALYs, 6.55 million (95% UI: 6.00 to 7.02 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 101 million (95% UI: 93.2 to 111 million) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of disease burden in the world. CVD burden continues its decades-long rise for almost all countries outside high-income countries, and alarmingly, the age-standardized rate of CVD has begun to rise in some locations where it was previously declining in high-income countries. There is an urgent need to focus on implementing existing cost-effective policies and interventions if the world is to meet the targets for Sustainable Development Goal 3 and achieve a 30% reduction in premature mortality due to noncommunicable diseases.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2982-3021
Number of pages40
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume76
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 22 2020

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