Silicon N-metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) and P-metal-oxide-semiconductor (PMOS) band edge effective work functions and the correspondingly low threshold voltages (Vt) are demonstrated using standard fab materials and processes in a gate-last scheme employing low-temperature anneals and selective cladding layers. Al diffusion from the cladding to the TiN/HfO2interface during forming gas anneal together with low O concentration in the TiN enables low NMOS Vt. The use of non-migrating W cladding along with experimentally detected N-induced dipoles, produced by increased oxygen in the TiN, facilitates low PMOS Vt.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)