To understand the dynamics and health of marine ecosystems such as lagoons and coral reefs as well as to understand the impact of human activities on these systems, it is imperative to predict the residence times of water masses and connectivity between ocean domains. In the present work, we consider the pristine lagoons and coral reefs of the Red Sea as an example of such sensitive ecosystems, with a large number of marine species, many of which are unique to the region. To study the residence times and connectivity patterns, we make use of recent advances in dynamic three-dimensional Lagrangian analyses using partial differential equations. Specifically, we extend and apply our novel efficient flow map composition scheme to predict the time needed for any particular water parcel to leave the domain of interest (i.e. a lagoon) as well as the time for any particular water parcel to enter that domain. These spatiotemporal residence time fields along with four-dimensional Lagrangian metrics such as finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields provide a quantitative description of the Lagrangian pathways and connectivity patterns of lagoons in the Red Sea.