This paper deals with new finite-time estimation algorithms for Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) discrete-time systems and their application to output feedback stabilization. Two exact finite-time estimation schemes are proposed. The first scheme provides a direct and explicit estimation algorithm based on the use of delayed outputs, while the second scheme uses two combined asymptotic observers, connected by a condition of invertibility of a certain time-varying matrix, to recover solution of the LPV system in a finite-time. Furthermore, two stabilization strategies are proposed. The first strategy, called Delayed Inputs/Outputs Feedback (DIOF) stabilization method, is based on the use of the explicit estimation algorithm. The second technique, called Two Connected Observers Feedback (2-COF) stabilization method, is based on the use of two combined observers providing exact finite-time estimation. A numerical example is given to show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms by simulation.