In this review, for the first time, the conjugation of the major types of enzymes used in biorefineries and the membrane processes to develop different configurations of MBRs, was analyzed for the production of biofuels, phytotherapics, food ingredients, etc. In particular, the aim is to critically review all the works related to the application of MBR in biorefinery, highlighting the advantages and the main drawbacks which can interfere with the development of this system at industrial scale. Alternatives strategies to overcome main limits will be also described in the different application fields, such as the use of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles associated with membrane processes for enzyme re-use and membrane cleaning or the membrane fouling control by the use of integrated membrane process associated with MBR.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Waste Management and Disposal