This paper studies the effect of stator winding configuration on the performance of five-phase induction machines under healthy as well as faulty conditions. The study compares two connections, namely, star and pentagon connections. The comparison is conducted using both simulation and experimental results. The steady-state model based on symmetrical components theory is introduced for both connections with one-line open due to a converter fault, and the corresponding machine characteristic curves are estimated. During faults, two alternatives for machine operation are possible, namely, open-loop control and optimal current control. While the first alternative corresponds to higher torque ripple and unbalanced winding currents, the second option necessitates unbalanced phase voltages and typically an increased dc-link voltage to source the required optimal currents. Consequently, an increase in the employed semiconductor device rating is required, which is a critical design factor particularly in medium-voltage applications. A new V/f control technique is proposed to ensure disturbance-free operation with one-line open for both winding connections. Based on the unbalanced machine model and experimental verification, the derating factors that ensure safe machine operation for both winding connection alternatives are calculated. The comparison between the two connections shows the superiority of the pentagon connection under fault conditions in terms of efficiency, average torque, torque ripples, and derating factor. © 1982-2012 IEEE.