In this paper, we propose a non-stationary satellite communication system model considering the impacts of Earth rotation by adopting the Earth-centered inertial (ECI), and the Earth-centered Earth-fixed (ECEF) coordinates. The position variations of a satellite (S) and a ground user (U) via coordinate transformations are demonstrated. Considering the variations of the distance between S and U, the instantaneous outage probability (OP) and channel capacity are calculated, as well as the system throughput within finite communication time. A simplified case is considered and analyzed while ignoring the Earth’s rotation. Furthermore, the asymptotic expressions for the OP, capacity, and throughput are developed in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime to obtain some insights. We also provide new definitions for throughput and OP within a short communication duration. The application and future research directions based on the derived results, including resource allocation, satellite handover, communication scenarios with multiple satellites and mobile users, are also discussed. Finally, some selected numerical results are provided to validate our proposed analysis models.