Early-Stage Growth Mechanism and Synthesis Conditions-Dependent Morphology of Nanocrystalline Bi Films Electrodeposited from Perchlorate Electrolyte.

Daria Tishkevich, Sergey Grabchikov, Tatiana Zubar, Denis Vasin, Sergei Trukhanov, Alla Vorobjova, Dmitry Yakimchuk, Artem Kozlovskiy, Maxim Zdorovets, Sholpan Giniyatova, Dmitriy Shimanovich, Dmitry Lyakhov, Dominik L. Michels, Mengge Dong, Svetlana Gudkova, Alex Trukhanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bi nanocrystalline films were formed from perchlorate electrolyte (PE) on Cu substrate via electrochemical deposition with different duration and current densities. The microstructural, morphological properties, and elemental composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The optimal range of current densities for Bi electrodeposition in PE using polarization measurements was demonstrated. For the first time, it was shown and explained why, with a deposition duration of 1 s, co-deposition of Pb and Bi occurs. The correlation between synthesis conditions and chemical composition and microstructure for Bi films was discussed. The analysis of the microstructure evolution revealed the changing mechanism of the films' growth from pillar-like (for Pb-rich phase) to layered granular form (for Bi) with deposition duration rising. This abnormal behavior is explained by the appearance of a strong Bi growth texture and coalescence effects. The investigations of porosity showed that Bi films have a closely-packed microstructure. The main stages and the growth mechanism of Bi films in the galvanostatic regime in PE with a deposition duration of 1-30 s are proposed.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1245
JournalNanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2 2020

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