Polyester, nylon, silk and wool were dyed with disperse reactive dyes in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The dyes were substituted with either vinylsulphone or dichlorotriazine reactive groups. Since earlier research showed that water, distributed over the scCO2 and the textile, increased the colouration, experiments were done with the vinylsulphone dye with varying amounts of water in the dyeing vessel, to investigate if there is an optimum water concentration. The amounts were such, that no liquid water was present. The maximum colouration was obtained when both the scCO2 and the textiles were saturated with water. At the saturation point, deep colours were obtained with the vinylsulphone dye for polyester, nylon, silk and wool, with fixation percentages between 70 and 92% when the dyeing time was 2 h. The positive effect of water was due to its ability to swell fibres or due to an effect of water on the reactivity of the dye-fibre system. Also the dichlorotriazine dye showed more colouration when the scCO2 was moist. With this dye, experiments were conducted in water-saturated scCO2, varying the pressure from 225 to 278 bar and the temperature from 100 to 116 °C. The colouration of polyester increased with pressure, the results for silk and wool were not sensitive to pressure. Increasing the temperature had no influence on the dyeing of polyester, silk and wool. The fixations on polyester, silk and wool, being between 71 and 97%, were also independent of pressure and temperature.
- Carbon dioxide
- Protein fibres
- Reactive disperse dyes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Materials Science (miscellaneous)
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)