The diabetes pandemic demands solutions for proper glycemic control and prevention of future chronic complications that could result in organ failure or comorbidities. In this regard, we now know that patients diagnosed with diabetes require individual management plans. Thus, new treatment management strategies have been designed to allow clinicians to tailor the most appropriate therapy for diabetes patients individually. These treatment management plans extend beyond defining the appropriate medications for patients; they provide a directive toward some acute and chronic complications that should be screened for, as they are historically known to occur with diabetes. Observing any of the complications or comorbidities requires the patient medication regimen to be adapted accordingly. This chapter describes such modern treatment plans for the two primary forms of diabetes, type 1 and type 2, based on both basic and clinical studies, later incorporated in various diabetes management guidelines and outlines expected future trends.