Cyclometalated Iridium–PhanePhos Complexes Are Active Catalysts in Enantioselective Allene–Fluoral Reductive Coupling and Related Alcohol-Mediated Carbonyl Additions That Form Acyclic Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters

Leyah A. Schwartz, Michael Holmes, Gilmar A. Brito, Theo Goncalves, Jeffery Richardson, J. Craig Ruble, Kuo-Wei Huang, Michael J. Krische

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Iridium complexes modified by the chiral phosphine ligand PhanePhos catalyze the 2-propanol-mediated reductive coupling of diverse 1,1-disubstituted allenes 1a-1u with fluoral hydrate 2a to form CF3-substituted secondary alcohols 3a-3u that incorporate acyclic quaternary carbon-containing stereodiads. By exploiting concentration-dependent stereoselectivity effects related to the interconversion of kinetic ( Z)- and thermodynamic ( E)-σ-allyliridium isomers, adducts 3a-3u are formed with complete levels of branched regioselectivity and high levels of anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of this method for construction of CF3-oxetanes and CF3-azetidines is illustrated by the formation of 4a and 6a, respectively. Studies of the reaction mechanism aimed at illuminating the singular effectiveness of PhanePhos as a supporting ligand in this and related transformations have led to the identification of a chromatographically stable cyclometalated iridium-( R)-PhanePhos complex, Ir-PP-I, that is catalytically competent for allene-fluoral reductive coupling and previously reported transfer hydrogenative C-C couplings of dienes or CF3-allenes with methanol. Deuterium labeling studies, reaction progress kinetic analysis (RPKA) and computational studies corroborate a catalytic mechanism involving rapid allene hydrometalation followed by turnover-limiting carbonyl addition. A computationally determined stereochemical model shows that the ortho-CH2 group of the cyclometalated iridium-PhanePhos complex plays a key role in directing diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The collective data provide key insights into the structural-interactional features of allyliridium complexes required to enforce nucleophilic character, which should inform the design of related cyclometalated catalysts for umpoled allylation.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2087-2096
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume141
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 25 2019

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