The Pseudomonas syringae cysteine protease AvrPphB activates the Arabidopsis resistance protein RPS5 by cleaving a second host protein, PBS1. AvrPphB induces defense responses in other plant species, but the genes and mechanisms mediating AvrPphB recognition in those species have not been defined. Here, we show that AvrPphB induces defense responses in diverse barley cultivars. We show also that barley contains two PBS1 orthologs, that their products are cleaved by AvrPphB, and that the barley AvrPphB response maps to a single locus containing a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene, which we termed AvrPphB Resistance 1 (Pbr1). Transient co-expression of PBR1 with wild-type AvrPphB, but not a protease inactive mutant, triggered defense responses, indicating that PBR1 detects AvrPphB protease activity. Additionally, PBR1 co-immunoprecipitated with barley and N. benthamiana PBS1 proteins, suggesting mechanistic similarity to detection by RPS5. Lastly, we determined that wheat cultivars also recognize AvrPphB protease activity and contain two putative Pbr1 orthologs. Phylogenetic analyses showed however that Pbr1 is not orthologous to RPS5. Our results indicate that the ability to recognize AvrPphB evolved convergently, and imply that selection to guard PBS1-like proteins occurs across species. Also, these results suggest that PBS1-based decoys may be used to engineer protease effector recognition-based resistance in barley and wheat. .